Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus garrulus
Vagrant
Bohemian Waxwings are often irruptive, not directly attributed to severe winters and not linked with specific populations or other species, but more often with lack of food.

White-throated Dipper Cinclus cinclus gularis (16-18)
Vagrant
The nearest breeding White-throated Dippers are in the east Midlands and Oxfordshire. The only Northamptonshire breeding record was in 1975 when a bird was seen feeding young in a nest at Edgecote on 19th July. British gularis is essentially sedentary although there is some post-breeding dispersal of immatures and a few adults.

(Black-bellied Dipper) Subspecies Cinclus cinclus cinclus
Vagrant
In winter small numbers of nominate cinclus visit Britain from Scandinavia. A Black-bellied Dipper was shot at Raunds Staunch about half a mile above Ringstead LNW Railway on 18/11/1889. The 15th record near Kettering on 24/2/1994 was also of this subspecies.

Winter Wren Troglodytes troglodytes troglodytes
Resident
The Winter wren shows irregular local movements and a few migrate south in severe winters.

Hedge Accentor Prunella modularis occidentalis
Sedentary
Hedge Accentor is a common species in many habitats. Individuals of this species move only very small distances in their lifetimes.

European Robin Erithacus rubecula melophilus
Resident
Male European Robins are sedentary with some movement of females south during the winter.

Rufous Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos megarhynchos Longer Recording 1.7Mb
Local Summer Visitor (Early and Late Dates)
The Rufous Nightingale breeds in southern and central Europe and England north to the Humber. It winters in central Africa. This species' national range is supposedly retracting, but in the 1980's Northamptonshire local numbers expanded due to less scrubbing out by the Forestry Commission. More recently numbers are decreasing again. The safe future of the breeding habitats of this species seems to be linked to the fluctuating trends in forest management. Lord Lilford described Nightingale as abundant in all suitable habitats, as abundant as anywhere else in England. It is included in the Red Data Book due to concerns over declining numbers.

Bluethroat Luscinia svecica svecica (1-1)
Vagrant
The only county record of Bluethroat was of one at Ditchford gravel pits on 26/06/1974. It was presumably of the nominate race svecica from Scandinavia which is a classic migrant to Britain with more records in spring than autumn.

Black Restart Phoenicurus ochruros gibraltariensis
Rare breeder and Rare Passage Migrant
Black Redstart has a fragmented breeding and wintering range in Britain with some birds arriving from the Continent. It has a small but increasing British population of less than 200 pairs. It has bred recently in the county. Lord Lilford reported only one record at Irchester Parish Church on Sunday 02/12/1883 seen by Rev.H.H.Slater. It is included in the Red Data Book because of its rare breeding status.

Common Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus
Rare Summer Visitor and Scarce Passage Migrant (Early and Late Dates)
The Common Redstart breeds in very small numbers annually in its prefered habitat: ancient oak woodlands. It breeds throughout most of Europe but not Ireland and winters in the Sahel. Lord Lilford reported that although not very abundant it was by no means uncommon. It is included in the Red Data Book because of its rare breeding status.

Whinchat Saxicola rubetra
Rare Summer Visitor and Scarce Passage Migrant (Early and Late Dates)
Whinchat breeds throughout most of Europe with an English population that is fragmented and declining. It winters in the Sahel. It has bred on occasions in Northamptonshire and is included in the Red Data Book on this basis.

Common Stonechat Saxicola torquata hibernans
Scarce Winter Visitor
The Common Stonechat has a scattered breeding range throughout Europe and Britain. Some are sedentary, especially near the coast, while others migrate, as does all of the Irish population. It has bred on occasions in Northamptonshire and is included in the Red Data Book on this basis.

Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe oenanthe
Regular Passage Migrant (Early and Late Dates)
Some of the nominate subspecies oenanthe, that breed in Scotland, Wales and scattered throughout England, pass through Northamptonshire on migration. It is one of the earliest migrants to occur on spring migration, getting into full swing by mid-March. There are more records in spring than autumn. Morton stated that they bred and Lord Lilford knew of one breeding site.

(Greenland Wheatear) Subspecies Oenanthe oenanthe leucorhoa
Rare Passage Migrant
Most of the leucorhoa population from Iceland, Greenland and Eastern Canada use Britain as a staging post for their migration to Africa. Some later spring birds are separable by size and colour from nominate oenanthe.

Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus torquatus
Irregular Passage Migrant
Ring Ouzel breeds in Scotland, Wales and Northern England and winters in the Mediterranean Basin. Passage birds could be British or Scandinavian. Morton stated that Ring Ouzel bred at Clipston, Marston and Arthingworth.

Eurasian Blackbird Turdus merula merula
Resident, Passage Migrant and Winter Visitor
The majority of Eurasian Blackbird are resident and numbers are supplemented by migrants from Scandinavia in the winter.

Eye-browed Thrush Turdus obscurus (1-1)
Rare Vagrant (British Rarity - 20)
Eye-browed Thrush breeds in Siberia and winters in south-east Asia. The only county record on 05/10/1964 constituted the first record for Britain and Ireland. Mrs. Winifred Smith and her son Martin, watched the bird for forty-five minutes in their garden at Oundle. It appeared with an influx of Song Thrushes.

Fieldfare Turdus pilaris
Regular Passage Migrant and Winter Visitor
Fieldfare breeds in Scandinavia and central Europe, with a few in Scotland and the Lake District. It winters throughout most of Europe including all of the British Isles. Numbers are not necessarily related to weather patterns and the same individuals do not return each year.

Song Thrush Turdus philomelos clarkei/philomelos
Resident, Passage Migrant and Winter Visitor
The Song Thrush breeds throughout the county, but it has a declining population. Some clarkei, from Britain and the near Continent, are resident. In autumn/winter philomelos from northern and central Europe supplement the British numbers with some continuing their migration on to south-east Europe. It is included in the Red Data Book because of its declining breeding numbers.

Redwing Turdus iliacus iliacus/coburni
Regular Passage Migrant and Winter Visitor (Early and Late Dates)
The subspecies iliacus breeds in Scotland, Scandinavia and northern Russia and winters in western Europe and the Mediterranean basin. The Icelandic race coburni passes through to winter in western France and Iberia. Wintering birds in Northamptonshire are mainly coburni.

Mistle Thrush Turdus viscivorus viscivorus
Resident
Mistle Thrush are mostly sedentary but a few form flocks and move south in the autumn.

Cetti's Warbler Cettia cetti cetti
Rare Resident
Cetti's Warbler is resident anywhere in range: Mediterranean basin, France and into the Low countries. The first British record was in Hampshire on 04/03/1961 from whence it has continued to expand its breeding range and now nests in much of southern and eastern England. The first county record was at Ditchford GP on 08/04/1984. There are still few enough records to classify this species as a vagrant, but birds are now resident and breeding in Northamptonshire. This is another species whose expansion appears to be faultering and its future appears to depend on the intensity of severe winter conditions. It is included in the Red Data Book because of its rare breeding status.

Common Grasshopper Warbler Locustella naevia naevia
Local Summer Visitor (Early and Late Dates)
The Common Grasshopper Warbler breeds in the British Isles from southern Scotland southwards and winters in the Sahel. It breeds at suitable sites throughout the county, however numbers have reduced significantly in recent years. A notable early record was on 30/03/1968 at Ravenstone Woods. It is included in the Red Data Book because of its declining numbers.

Savi's Warbler Locustella luscinioides (3-3)
Vagrant
Savi's Warbler has a very small breeding population in East Anglia and Kent and winters in Africa. The individual seen at Ringstead GP on 08 and 09/05/1991 was also seen at Stanwick GP from 16/07/1991 until 02/08/1991. Many observers enjoyed views of this bird at Stanwick GP. This individual was the second county record.

Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola (1-1)
Vagrant
The only record of this predominantly autumn migrant was at Thrapston GP on 19/08/1989.

Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus
Regular Passage Migrant and Summer Visitor (Early and Late Dates)
Sedge Warbler breeds throughout most of the British Isles and winters in Africa. Lord Lilford wrote, "I have more than once met with a bird of this species on the river banks in the winter months." Two notable early records on 23/03/1958 at Kislingbury and 24/03/1957 at Sywell Reservoir.

Marsh Warbler Acrocephalus palustris (1-1)
Vagrant
Marsh Warbler arrives in Britain in late May or early June and now only breeds regularly in a small area of south-west England where its range is still contracting. It winters in east Africa.

Eurasian Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus scirpaceus
Regular Passage Migrant and Summer Visitor (Early and Late Dates)
Eurasian Reed Warbler breeds in southern Britain and winters in tropical Africa.

Great Reed Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus arundinaceus (3-3)
Rare Vagrant (British Rarity - 189)
The Great Reed Warbler breeds throughout central and southern Europe, the Baltic states and central Russia. It winters in central and southern Africa. There have been only three accepted records: near Oundle in June 1943, Stanford Reservoir in September 1976 and Ravensthorpe Reservoir in May 1978. Lord Lilford quoted from Yarrell's 'British Birds', "A Mr Wheelwright sent an egg of Reed-Thrush, taken in 1845, to a Mr John Hancock of Newcastle-on-Tyne. Mr Wheelwright was a 'bushman of the field' and lived at Cotterstock, but gave no positive information as to where it was taken."

Icterine Warbler Hippolais icterina (1-1)
Vagrant
Icterine Warbler's breeding range is scattered throughout France, east across Europe and Russia and north throughout most of sub-arctic Fenno-Scandia. It winters in southern Africa. It is a classic vagrant to the east coast of Britain in the autumn.

Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca curruca
Summer Visitor (Early and Late Dates)
Lesser Whitethroat breeds in England, except the south-west, and in eastern Wales. It winters in north-east Africa.

Common Whitethroat Sylvia communis communis
Summer Visitor (Early and Late Dates)
Common Whitethroat breeds from central Scotland southwards throughout the rest of the British Isles and winters in the Sahel.

Garden Warbler Sylvia borin
Summer Visitor (Early and Late Dates)
Garden Warbler breeds from central Scotland southwards throughout the rest of Britain and winters in central and southern Africa. Lord Lilford reported it as 'tolerably common, certainly well named as it evinces a remarkable partiality for gardens'.

Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla atricapilla
Summer Visitor and Rare Winter Visitor
The Blackcap breeds from central Scotland southwards throughout the rest of the British Isles and winters mostly in the Mediterranean Basin. It regularly winters in the county in very small numbers with survival dependant on less severe weather conditions.

Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus inornatus (3-3)
Vagrant
Yellow-browed Warbler breeds in northern Siberia and winters in southern and south-east Asia. It is a classic vagrant within the Palearctic and to the east coast in late autumn.

Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix
Scarce Passage Migrant and Irregular Summer Visitor (Early and Late Dates)
The Wood Warbler is widely but locally distributed throughout England and Wales in summer. It winters in the Sahel. It has bred in Northamptonshire in recent years in deciduous woodland and is included in the Red Data Book on this basis.

Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita collybita
Summer Visitor and Rare Winter Visitor
Common Chiffchaff breeds from central Scotland southwards throughout the rest of the British Isles and winters in the Mediterranean Basin. It regularly winters in the county in very small numbers with survival dependant on less severe weather conditions. Lord Lilford wrote, "I have twice met with this species in the month of December." Abietinus from Scandinavian presumably occurs and may be identified in the future.

(Siberian Chiffchaff) Subspecies Phylloscopus collybita tristis
Vagrant
This subspecies breeds in north-eastern Western Palearctic(Pechora), east through Siberia and winters in southern Asia. Tristis has been recorded overwintering in the county.

Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus trochilus/acredula?
Summer Visitor (Early and Late Dates)
Willow Warbler is a common summer visitor to our woodland. It breeds throughout nearly all of the British Isles and winters in tropical and southern Africa.

Goldcrest Regulus regulus anglorum/regulus
Resident, Passage Migrant and Winter Visitor
The subspecies anglorum breeds in the British Isles and shows movements in winter associated with bad weather. Some of the continental race regulus winter in Britain and large movements are associated with severe weather on the Continent.

Firecrest Regulus ignicapillus ignicapillus
Rare Summer Visitor, Passage Migrant and Winter Visitor
Firecrest only began breeding in Britain in the early 1960's and still has a faltering range expansion in south-east England. It occurs on passage and in winter, birds which are presumably from the Continent. It has bred in recent years in coniferous woodland and is included in the Red Data Book because of its rare breeding status.

Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata striata
Summer Visitor (Early and Late Dates)
The Spotted Flycatcher breeds throughout nearly all of the British Isles and winters in tropical Africa. It is one of the latest summer visitors to return to Northamptonshire where its breeding numbers have been drastically reduced. It is included in the Red Data Book because of its declining numbers.

European Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca hypoleuca
Rare Passage Migrant
European Pied Flycatcher has a scattered breeding poulation in south-west and northern England, Wales and the Welsh borders and sparcely in Scotland. It winters in tropical Africa.

Bearded Tit Panurus biarmicus biarmicus
Rare Winter Visitor
Bearded Tit breeds around coastal south-east England where the population is mainly sedentary. There are irregular dispersal movements outside the breeding season.

Long-Tailed Tit Aegithalos caudatus rosaceus
Sedentary
The Long-tailed Tit is widespread in hedgerows, thickets, woodland and at times in suburban areas. It moves around in flocks in winter but over no great distances. It always gives away its presence by the distinctive 'tserrr' calls.

Marsh Tit Parus palustris dresseri
Sedentary
The Marsh Tit prefers mature deciduous woodland and forms small groups in winter. It is usually heard before being seen with its distinctive 'pit-chew' call echoing through the undergrowth.

Willow Tit Parus montanus kleinschmidti
Sedentary
The Willow Tit can be found in a variety of habitats, particularly enjoying damp woodland or scrub. It is usually heard before being seen with its distinctive 'Tsay-Tsay-Tsay' call. Once located the birds are often seen in pairs and continually call to each other with a soft 'stee-tee'. Lord Lilford gave no mention of Willow Tit in Northamptonshire. It was not until 1900 that it was recognised as distinct from the Marsh Tit in Britain where the two species are very similar. Even then it was usually treated as a sub-species of Black-Capped Chickadee Parus atricapillus from the Nearctic until it was separated in the 1950's on plumage, call and reproductive cycle.

Coal Tit Parus ater britannicus
Sedentary
The Coal Tit is our only tit to prefer coniferous woodland, but it is not uncommon in other woodlands. The local population wanders into other habitats in winter and there may be an influx in winter but not on a regular basis.

Blue Tit Parus caeruleus obscurus
Sedentary
Blue Tit can be found commonly in woodland, parks and gardens and is our commonest tit. It joins mixed tit flocks in winter and the local population is possibly supplimented by an influx in winter but not on a regular basis.

Great Tit Parus major newtoni
Sedentary
The Great Tit joins mixed tit flocks in winter. There is possibly an influx in winter but not on a regular basis.

Wood Nuthatch Sitta europaea affinis
Sedentary
The Wood Nuthatch is widespread but not common in deciduous woodland and parks.

Eurasian Treecreeper Certhia familiaris britannica
Sedentary
The Eurasian Treecreeper can be found in both

 deciduous and coniferous woodland. It prefers deciduous because it can find more suitable nest sites. It is prone to population fluctuations because hard winters have a severe effect on numbers.

Eurasian Penduline Tit Remiz pedulinus pedulinus (1-1)
Rare Vagrant (British Rarity - 143)
Resident populations of Eurasian Penduline Tit breed along the north Mediterranean coast and throughout much of southern Russia and eastern Europe. Its range is expanding westwards through Germany, Denmark and the Low Countries and in the early 1980's it was thought soon to colonise Britain. The colonisation of Britain seems to have stalled and still there has been less than 150 records. The only county record at Ditchford GP on 22/10/1983 was only the 8th British record.

Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus oriolus Records since 1969 (8-10)
Rare Passage Migrant
Eurasian Golden Oriole has a very fragmented breeding distribution in southern England and it winters in tropical Africa. Lord Lilford noted several records and that it might have bred in the late 19th century near Benefield but this was not confirmed.

Red-Backed Shrike Lanius collurio collurio Records since 1969 (11-12)
Vagrant
Red-backed Shrike breeds throughout most of Europe north to southern Fenno-Scandia and winters in East Africa. The last known breeding site in Britain was in the Brecklands. It bred in the county until the 1960s. Records from now on are likely to be passage birds from continental breeding grounds. Morton described how he shot and dissected a pair near Braybrook, to prove that the Lesser Ash-coloured Butcher-bird was in fact a female of the Greater Ash-coloured Butcher-bird.

Lesser Grey Shrike Lanius minor (1-1)
Rare Vagrant (British Rarity - 155)
Lesser Grey Shrike breeds in central and southern France eastwards through temperate Western Palearctic and winters in the Sahel.

Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor excubitor
Rare Winter Visitor
The northern race excubitor breeds from France eastwards through central Europe, Finland and much of northern Scandinavia. Most populations are resident but northern birds from Fenno-Scandia move south in the winter accounting for records of wintering birds in eastern Britain. It is always found singularly in a variety of habitats. The best months to find Great Grey Shrike in Britain are November and December. Lord Lilford related that they were hardly worth noting. There have not been many records in recent years although as with all species that originate from Scandinavia, their presence in this country is erratic.

Steppe Grey Shrike Lanius pallidirostris (1-1)
Rare Vagrant
The most recent species to be added to the county list was a Steppe Grey Shrike Lanius pallidirostris on 04 and 05/11/1997. The bird stayed for two days in a field near Long Buckby and is the 12th British record. Enjoyment of birders was increased even more when the shrike was joined in the same field by a Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris - a second record for the county. This species has recently been split from Southern Grey Shrike Lanius meridionalis although current taxonomy in Britain still lumps these two species.

Woodchat Shrike Lanius senator senator (1-1)
Rare Vagrant (British Rarity - 740)
Woodchat Shrike breeds in the Mediterranean basin and its range then extends northwards to within 100 miles of the north European coast. It winters in the Sahel. The only county record was of one seen in Gore Piece near Duddington in the spring of 1869.

Eurasian Jay Garrulus glandarius rufitergum
Sedentary
Some of the Continental birds of the subspecies glandarius do occur but only due to irregular irruptions, the last major movements were in 1983.

Black-billed Magpie Pica pica pica
Sedentary
Black-billed Magpie is a common breeding species with numbers increasing as a long-term trend.

Spotted Nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes macrorhynchus (3-4)
Rare Vagrant (British Rarity - 447)
The Spotted Nutcraker breeds in Siberia and northern Russia. In autumn it moves west and south as far as southern Scandinavia. Large movements from time to time are irruptions probably due to lack of food. These irruptions involve only the afore mentioned populations which are of the slender-billed race.

Eurasian Jackdaw Corvus monedula spermologus
Sedentary
There is some movement of continental Eurasian Jackdaw to Britain in autumn/winter but large numbers only occur on an irregular basis.

Rook Corvus frugilegus frugilegus
Sedentary
There is some movement of continental Rooks to Britain in autumn/winter but large numbers only occur on an irregular basis.

Carrion Crow Corvus corone corone
Sedentary
There is some movement of continental Carrion Crows to Britain in autumn/winter but large numbers only occur on an irregular basis.

(Hooded Crow) Subspecies Corvus corone cornix
Rare Autumn Passage Migrant and Winter Visitor
This subspecies breeds in northern Scotland and Continental Europe. Records in southern England are not associated with the weather and are variable.

Common Raven Corvus corax corax 20th century records (8-9)
Vagrant
The Common Raven breeds in Ireland, Scotland, Wales and north-west and south-west England. In winter there is some dispersal from their breeding grounds but mainly individuals just undergo altitudinal movements. It was formerly common, with the last breeding records in the 1820/30's and then several other sightings up until 1880.

Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris vulgaris
Sedentary, Passage Migrant and Winter Visitor
The Common Starling is resident in most of its European range but birds from Fenno-Scandia and Russia migrate south and west to winter.

Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus (2-2)
Rare Vagrant (British Rarity - 616)
Rosy Starling breeds in Turkey and the Russian Steppes and winters in the Indian region. Periodically it irrupts westwards, quite often in small numbers. Both county records were of birds that were shot, the individual at Weedon on 10/09/1888 was an adult male.

House Sparrow Passer domesticus domesticus
Sedentary
The House Sparrow is an abundant bird around settlements.

Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus montanus
Sedentary
Eurasian Tree Sparrow shows a local breeding pattern with its numbers having been reduced in recent years. It is included in the Red Data Book because of its declining numbers.

Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs gengleri/coelebs
Resident, Passage Migrant and Winter Visitor
Gengleri the British race shows little movement. Coelebs breeds throughout the rest of Europe north to the Arctic Circle. Birds from Fenno-Scandia and Russia migrate south and west to winter and suppliment the British population.

Brambling Fringilla montifringilla
Regular Winter Visitor (Early and Late Dates)
The Brambling breeds in Fenno-Scandia and northern Russia, with a few pairs in Scotland.

European Greenfinch Chloris chloris chloris
Resident
The European Greenfinch is common in all kinds of habitat with trees and hedges. There is a tendency with some towards a southwards movement in autumn and also a possibility of some occurring from the Continent.

European Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis britannica
Resident
European Goldfinch forms flocks and moves locally in autumn and winter. These small flocks of 15-20 are often found feeding on thistles or teasels. There is a possibility of some occurring from the Continent.

Eurasian Siskin Carduelis spinus
Regular Winter Visitor
Eurasian Siskin breeds in Scotland, scattered throughout Wales and Ireland and very sparcely in England. Most of these are resident and so Northamptonshire records are probably from Fenno-Scandian migrants. The numbers of Eurasian Siskin in the county fluctuate, each winter due to their Scandinavian origin. Normally Eurasian Siskins are to be found in large flocks and often join Common Redpolls in mixed flocks. They show a liking for Alders.

Eurasian Linnet Carduelis cannabina cannabina
Resident
Eurasian Linnet used to be a common bird of hedgerows and farmland but its numbers have declined by more than 50% in the last quarter of the 20th century. There is some movement of birds south from Britain and west from the Continent in autumn but this does not affect the numbers in Northamptonshire greatly. It is included in the Red Data Book because of its declining numbers.

Twite Carduelis flavirostris pipilans/flavirostris
Scarce and Irregular Winter Visitor
Pipilans breeds in northern Britain and shows some movement southward in the autumn. However, it is possible that Northamptonshire records could be the continental race flavirostris.

Common Redpoll Carduelis flammea cabaret
Resident
The Common Redpoll can be found in most woodlands and sometimes suburban areas. In the 1960's and 70's it increased in numbers due to its liking for conifer plantations. In the 1980's its numbers have dropped and it is now a rare breeder. The British race cabaret shows small movements in winter. They form flocks in the winter, sometimes with Eurasian Siskin and have a liking for Alder at that time of year. It is included in the Red Data Book because of its breeding status.

(Mealy Redpoll) Subspecies Carduelis flammea flammea
Vagrant
Mealy Redpoll breeds in northern Europe and moves south in the winter. As efforts to identify this subspecies improve, it is probably more likely to be a scarce winter visitor.

Arctic Redpoll Carduelis hornemanni (3-5)
Rare Vagrant (British Rarity - 500+)
All records of Arctic Redpoll in the winter of 1995/6 were part of a national influx.

Two-Barred Crossbill Loxia leucoptera bifasciata (3-3)
Rare Vagrant (British Rarity - 156)
A female was shot in 1848 near Northampton and kept alive for 4 months.

Common Crossbill Loxia curvirostra curvirostra
Rare Breeder and Irregular Visitor
Common Crossbill has a scattered breeding population throughout England and has bred in Northamptonshire. In some years there are no records and in others there are irruptions in June/July that are presumably British birds or in October/November which are presumably Scandinavian birds. Unlike most visitors, birds tend to stay for sometime, perhaps for several months. This suggests movements looking for food and not because of bad weather. It is included in the Red Data Book because of its rare breeding status.

Parrot Crossbill Loxia pytyopsittacus (2-11)
Rare Vagrant (British Rarity - has bred, 249 in 1990, 222 in 1991, none since)

Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula nesa
Resident
There was an increase in Bullfinch numbers which coincided with the Sparrowhawk's decline. The Sparrowhawk is the major predator of Bullfinches and not surprisingly Bullfinch numbers have significantly reduced in last the last 20 years as the Sparrowhawk has recovered. The Bullfinch is usually seen in pairs and often gives away its presence with its soft yet distinctive 'duue' call. It is included in the Red Data Book because of its declining numbers.

Hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes coccothraustes
Rare Resident
The Hawfinch breeds in small numbers(less than 10 pairs) in mature deciduous woodland. In winter it has a particular liking for Hornbeams and is not so closely linked with dense woodland. It is often over-looked because of its stealthy habits and searchers often locate the bird when they hear the distinctive metallic 'Tip' call which is usually given in flight. The British population shows small movements in winter. It is included in the Red Data Book because of its rare breeding population.

Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus lapponicus (7-10/11)
Vagrant
The Lapland Longspur breeds in Greenland and the Highlands of Scotland. It winters along the south and east coast of Britain.

Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis
Scarce and Irregular Winter Visitor
Snow Bunting breeds in Greenland, Scandinavia and the highlands of Scotland. It winters in Scotland and coastal British Isles.

Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella citrinella
Resident
Yellowhammer is widespread and common although numbers have declined because of hedgerow destruction, tidying-up of farmland and current farming practises.

Cirl Bunting Emberiza cirlus cirlus
Vagrant
Cirl Bunting breeds in southern England north to the Thames but its range is retracting all the time. Slater noted that they were a resident in small numbers although Lord Lilford related no breeding records. He did see one in 1866 feeding on grain that he had put out for his Emus! There have only been two records since. The range of Cirl Bunting has been retracting for more than two hundred years and so its loss as a breeding species in Northamptonshire has not significantly been influenced by man.

Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus schoeniclus
Resident, Passage Migrant and Winter Visitor
Local Reed Buntings are sedentary but numbers are supplemented in the winter by Continental visitors. It is quite common in suitably damp areas with willows and reeds like gravel pits and reservoirs. A few can also be found in drier habitats breeding in hadgerows by cereal fields. Passage birds are commonest in March and October. It is included in the Red Data Book because of its declining numbers.

Corn Bunting Miliaria calandra
Sedentary
The Corn Bunting has a very local breeding population that has been decreasing this century. It inhabits farmland with a preference for arable farming. It often forms winter flocks and uses reed and reed mace beds for roosting. Lord Lilford commented that "it is certainly not a very abundant bird, it is not sufficiently well known to have obtained a local name." It is included in the Red Data Book because of its declining numbers.